Jurnal Melayu

Jurnal Melayu DBP

ADA APA DALAM “HUTAN MELAYU”? NARATIF FIZIKAL DAN SPIRITUAL HUTAN MELAYU DI ZAMAN BRITISH-MALAYA

 

(“What’s inside Malay Forests?” Physical and spiritual narrative of the Malay forests in British-Malaya)

 

Puteh Noraihan A Rahman

[email protected]

Pusat Pengajian Citra Universiti, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

 

Terbit dalam talian (published online): 1 Januari 2021

Sila rujuk: Puteh Norihan A. Rahman. (2020). Ada Apa dalam “Hutan Melayu”? Naratif Fizikal dan Spiritual Hutan Melayu di Zaman British-Malaya. Melayu: Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu, 14(1), 1-20.

Abstrak

Menurut WWF, hutan meliputi 30% permukaan bumi dan merupakan sistem sokongan yang penting dalam menyeimbangi ekosistem dunia (World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) n.d.). Sebermulanya kehidupan makhluk di alam ini, sumber hutan menjadi nadi kehidupan manusia sejagat. Kebergantungan manusia terhadap hasil hutan bukan sahaja menjadi tunjang keberlangsungan kehidupan sesebuah keluarga yang nukleus tetapi juga turut menyumbang kepada ekonomi masyarakat setempat. Seperti yang diketahui, hutan Malaysia terdiri daripada hutan gunung, hutan hujan tropika, hutan paya serta hutan pantai. Bagi masyarakat Melayu tradisional, kebergantungan terhadap hutan penting bagi kesinambungan kehidupan. Selain berfungsi sebagai sumber makanan, hutan turut menyumbang kepada aspek kebudayaan masyarakat dalam Tamadun Melayu. Oleh yang demikian, kajian ini bakal menganalisis gambaran hutan Melayu berasaskan penulisan pegawai British dan penulis zaman kolonial seperti Maxwell, Clifford, Swettenham, Fauconnier, Endicott, Winstedt, Skeat, Wilkinson serta Annandale. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan naratif dan autoetnografi, pandangan mengenai hutan Melayu dinilai dari perspektif Barat iaitu berdasarkan pengamatan pegawai British-Malaya serta sarjana Barat yang mendalami citra masyarakat Melayu pada zaman itu. Penulisan ini akan memperlihatkan pandangan semesta orang Melayu mengenai hutan mereka dalam bentuk fizikal dan spiritual melalui lensa masyarakat Barat.

Kata kunci: Hutan Melayu, Malay Forests, British-Malaya, British colonial, Environmental history

 

Abstract

According to the WWF, forests cover 30% of the earth’s surface and act as important support systems in balancing the world ecosystem (World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) n.d.). They are home to many plant and animal species and a critical source for sustaining human livelihood. Human dependency on forest products is the backbone of not only the survival of a nuclear family but also contributes to the economy of the local community. As known, Malaysian forests consist of mountainous forests, tropical rainforest, swamps and coastal forests. As for traditional Malay society, they relied heavily on forests for survival. Besides its functioning as a source of food, forests also contribute to the cultural aspects of society in the Malay civilisation. Hence, this study will analyse the image and description of the Malay forests based on the writing of British officers and writers during the colonial era such as Maxwell, Clifford, Swettenham, Fauconnier, Endicott, Winstedt, Skeat, Wilkinson and Annandale. By using a narrative approach and auto-ethnography, views of the Malay forest will be assessed from Western perspectives, which are based predominantly on the observations of British-Malaya colonial officers and Western scholars involved directly in the Malay community and their communal activities at the time. In summary, this writing will depict the worldview of the Malays about their forests, physically and spiritually, through the lens of Westerners.

Keywords: Malay Forests, British-Malaya, British colonial, environmental history, Malay civilization

 

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