Jurnal Melayu

Jurnal Melayu DBP

Alam Melayu dari Sudut Pandangan Penulis Wanita Kolonial

(The Malay World from the Point of View of Colonial Women Writers)

Mohamad Rashidi Pakri

Elizabeth Joanny Openg

Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Kemanusiaan,
Universiti Sains Malaysia.

 

 

Abstrak

Artikel membincangkan sudut pandangan yang dikemukakan oleh penulis wanita pada zaman kolonial seperti Margaret Brooke (The Ranee of Sarawak) menerusi hasil tulisannya My Life in Sarawak (1913), Emily Innes menerusi karya The Chersonese With the Gilding Off (1885) dan Isabella Bird menerusi karya The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither (1883). Ketiga-tiga karya ini ditulis semasa era pemerintahan British di Sarawak dan Tanah Melayu, sesuai dengan peranan Innes dan Bird sebagai isteri pegawai kolonial British di Tanah Melayu, serta Brooke sebagai isteri Raja Putih Sarawak. Sudut pandangan ketiga-tiga penulis terhadap nilai kehidupan Timur, orang Melayu dan ketamadunannya menampakkan perbezaan persepsi, ditambah pula dengan faktor latar belakang ekonomi dan status dalam masyarakat seperti yang dikemukakan oleh Sara Mills (2002). Kajian ini cuba membuktikan hasil penulisan para penulis tidak seragam (homogeneous) dan bersatu (unified) sesama mereka, malahan berselisih pendapat tentang beberapa perkara, terutamanya sudut pandangan mereka tentang polisi Kerajaan British di Tanah Melayu.

Kata kunci: kolonial, Sarawak, ranee, Melayu, Sarah Mills

 

Abstract

This paper discusses the views expressed by three colonial women writers, namely Margaret Brooke (The Ranee of Sarawak), Emily Innes and Isabella Bird. By comparing the results of their writings such as My Life in Sarawak (1913) by Margaret Brooke, with Emily Innes’s The Chersonese With the Gilding Off (1885) and Isabella Bird’s The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither (1883). All three works were written during the era of British colonial rule in Sarawak and Malaya, and are closely linked with the roles of Innes and Bird as the wives of British colonial officers in Malaya, as well as Margaret Brooke’s as the wife of Sarawak’s White Rajah. Taking into consideration the differences in their economic background and status in society as presented by Sara Mills (2002), the viewpoints of these three authors concerning life in the East, the Malays, and their civilisation reveal differences in their perception. This paper tries to show that the views of these three authors are not uniform, homogeneous or ‘unified’, and are especially divergent regarding the policies of the British government in Malaya.

Keywords: colonial, Sarawak, Ranee, Malay, Sarah Mills

 

Rujukan

Bird, I. L. (2010). The golden chersonese and the way thither. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boehmer, E. (1995). Colonial and postcolonial literature: Migrant metaphors. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brooke, L. M., B. (n.d.). My life in Sarawak. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/cu31924021573468#page/n105/mode/2up at 26 June 2016.

Chrisman, L., & Williams, P. (1993). Colonial discourse and post-colonial theory: A reader. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Emily Innes & Tunku Panglima Raja. (1885). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://historianlodge.historiansecret.com/?p=1006 at 23 Jun 2016.

Innes, E. (n.d.). The Chersonese with the Gilding Off. Retrieved  from https://archive.org/stream/chersonesewithg00emilgoog#page/n283/mode/2up at 20 Jun 2016.

Mills,  S.  (1991).  Discourses  of  difference:  An  analysis  of  women’s  travel writing and colonialism. London: Routledge.

Said, E. W. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.

Sulaiman Noordin. (1999). Sejarah Pemikiran II. Bangi: Pusat Pengajian Umum, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Zawiah Yahya. (1990). Resisting Colonial Discourse. Akademika, 37 (Disember 1990), 107 ‒ 133.

 

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