Jurnal Melayu

Jurnal Melayu DBP

Tema Keklasikan dalam Bentuk Seni Bina Melayu: Prinsip daripada Golongan Bangsawan

(Themes of Classicality in the Malay Architectural Form: Principles from an Aristocratic Realm)

Puteri Shireen Jahn Kassim
Noor Hanita Abdul Majid
Tengku Anis Qarihah Raja Abdul Kadir

Kulliyyah Seni Bina dan Reka Bentuk Alam Sekitar,
Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia.

NurulSyala Abdul Latip
Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia.

Abstrak

Istilah “klasik” dalam hasil penulisan, wacana seni bina, pengajian budaya, serta urbanisme Asia Tenggara dan Melayu pada zaman dahulu biasanya mempunyai kaitan dengan idea bentuk yang “suci” dan juga berkaitan dengan kosa kata tradisional, serta binaan kayu dan gubahan. Artikel ini mencabar definisi semasa dengan mengaitkan istilah ini dengan golongan bangsawan, serta mengemukakan pendapat bahawa istana dan rumah agam dunia Melayu merupakan manifestasi prinsip, unsur dan tema yang umumnya dianggap sebagai “klasik”. Unsur keklasikan termasuklah kepekaan terhadap simetri atau kesekataan, keseimbangan bentuk, hiasan yang sederhana dan seni reka yang tidak sarat. Artikel ini meneliti ciri buka depan dan dongakan istana lama, serta mendedahkan tema yang tersembunyi sebagai cerminan ciri keklasikan bangsawan yang agak dominan dan semakin meningkat seiring dengan konteks evolusi sosiopolitik Melayu, seperti yang tercermin dalam reka bentuk beberapa istana dan rumah agam golongan bangsawan pada akhir abad ke-19 hingga awal abad ke-20an. Pengaruh seni bina penjajah Barat menghasilkan bentuk kacukan pada ketika sosiobudaya Melayu mengalami perubahan akibat perkembangan ekonomi dan teknologi baharu. Istana yang dibina pada zaman ini menunjukkan perubahan dalam seni bina tempatan dari segi teknologi tetapi pada dasarnya masih mengekalkan unsur bentuk seni bina Melayu asli. Istilah “klasik” Melayu menggambarkan ciri “keklasikan” dan “kehalusan” gaya, serta mencerminkan unsur bentuk yang tidak lapuk dek zaman. Evolusi bentuk klasik ini adakalanya “diganggu” oleh unsur kolonial yang digunakan bersama-sama ciri bentuk seni bina Melayu asli. Pengaruh ini sedikit sebanyak menghakis unsur Melayu asli tetapi tidak menjejaskannya secara menyeluruh. Unsur Melayu yang mampu bertahan walaupun menghadapi arus kemodenan akibat penjajahan Barat merupakan unsur utama seni bina dan ciri urbanisme Melayu. Unsur inilah yang dibincangkan dalam artikel ini yang berasal daripada tunjang seni bina Melayu yang sama dari segi asal usul dan salasilah, meskipun menyerapkan kata-kata kolonial.

 

Kata kunci: gaya Melayu klasik, kewilayahan, kekacukan, peralihan seni bina, seni bina Asia Tenggara

 

Abstract

The term ‘classical’ in past South East Asian and Malay writings, architectural discourse, cultural studies and urbanism relates to a notion of ‘purity’ of form, and the traditional vocabulary and forms  arising mainly from timber constructions and compositions. This article challenges the current definition by linking it to an aristocratic realm, and argues that  selected palaces and mansions of the Malay world embody these universally-understood principles, rules and themes. Such rules of classicality include a keen sense of symmetry, proportionality in form, controlled decorative character and clean lines. This paper explores the frontages and elevational character of these palaces and highlights the underlying themes as reflections of ‘the assertive character of aristocratic classicality’ which heightened in the context of the evolvement of  Malay socio-polities, reflected in certain palatial buildings and aristocratic houses of the late 1800s and early 1900s. The incursion of colonial influences resulted in the evolving of hybrid forms as the Malay socio-cultural landscape underwent changes due to new economic energies and technologies. These palaces reflect local architectural form which underwent changes in technology but essentially held on to the essence of the Malay form. The language of the Malay ‘classical’  depicts attributes of ‘classicality’ and a ‘highly refined’ style, and also reflects certain timeless rules of form. The evolution of these classical forms was occasionally ‘interrupted’ by colonial elements juxtaposed  upon the original Malay forms. Though at times this diluted the original Malay essence, it did not compromise it. The Malay elements which  survived the onslaught of modernity through colonialism can be considered key rules of Malay architectural and urban character. These are argued as belonging to the same ‘tree’ of Malay architecture which absorbed colonial vocabulary yet has the same root and genealogy.

 

Keywords: Malay classical style, regionalism, hybridity, architectural tectonics, South-East Asian architecture

 

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