Jurnal Melayu

Jurnal Melayu DBP

WELTANSCHAUUNG DAN MANIFESTASI KEPERCAYAAN TRADISI ETNIK DI SARAWAK

(Weltanschauung and the Manifestation of Beliefs in the Ethnic Traditions of Sarawak)

Awang Azman Awang Pawi

awangazman@gmail.com

Institut Pengajian Asia Timur,

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

Abstrak

Weltanschauung dan kepercayaan tradisi etnik di Sarawak, iaitu Melanau, Iban dan Kedayan memainkan peranan penting dalam kehidupan mereka seharian. Pandangan dunia mereka dipengaruhi oleh kepercayaan awal, sebelum kedatangan Islam dan Kristian, iaitu animisme yang mempercayai makhluk halus, semangat dan roh, yang menjadi asas kepercayaan masyarakat tradisional. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk meneliti pandangan dunia dan manifestasi daripada kepercayaan ini yang mencetuskan upacara tertentu bagi memenuhi tuntutan dan keperluan dalam masyarakat etnik tradisi tersebut. Kajian ini menggabungkan pendekatan etnografi dan kajian kepustakaan. Daripada kajian didapati bahawa selepas kedatangan agama Islam dan Kristian, kepercayaan tersebut masih bersemadi dalam kolektif memori masyarakat tersebut. Kolektif memori tersebut menjadi warisan budaya etnik tersebut di Sarawak. Didapati, masih terdapat Melanau Likow atau pagan yang mengamalkannya. Dalam kalangan etnik Iban pula masih diamalkan terutama di luar bandar lebih tertentu untuk pertanian dan perayaan. Makan Tahun etnik Kedayan pula telah mengalami pengislaman sesuai dengan kepercayaan baharu anutan etnik Kedayan. Ternyata, dinamika budaya mempengaruhi pandangan dunia dan mengubah manifestasi kepercayaan tradisi mereka merupakan signifikasi utama hasil penelitian ini.

Kata kunci: kepercayaan etnik, pandangan dunia, tradisi, Sarawak

Abstract

The Weltanschauung and traditional beliefs of ethnic groups in Sarawak, such as the Melanau, Iban and Kedayans is important in their daily life. Their world view is influenced by animistic beliefs that have existed since before the arrival of Islam and Christianity, in which a belief in spirits and the soul is fundamental. The objective of this study is to examine the world view and manifestations of this belief in the traditions of these ethnic communities, as evident through certain ceremonies. This study combines ethnographic approaches and library research. This study has found that even after the arrival of Islam and Christianity, animism is still enshrined in the collective memory of these communities. The Collective memory is thus a part of the cultural heritage of ethnic groups in Sarawak. The Melanau Likow still practise this belief, as well as the Iban, especially those in rural areas, where the practices are more specifically linked to agriculture and festivities.  The Makan Tahun ceremony of the Kedayan ethnic group, on the other hand, has undergone a process of islamization in order to suit the new religious beliefs of the Kedayans. Clearly, the dynamics of culture influence world view and modify the manifestation of traditions, which is the main significance of these findings.

Keywords:   ethnic beliefs, world view, tradition, Sarawak

 

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