Jurnal Melayu

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KUDA DALAM MASYARAKAT DI TANAH MELAYU PADA ERA SEBELUM MERDEKA 

(The Horse in the Society of the Malay States before Independence)

Azharudin Mohamed Dali

[email protected]

Jabatan Sejarah,

Universiti Malaya,

50603 Kuala Lumpur.

 

 

Abstrak

Makalah ini bertujuan menganalisis perkaitan antara kuda dengan masyarakat di Tanah Melayu sebelum kemerdekaan. Perbincangan melihat kepada empat persoalan, iaitu mengenal pasti asal usul kuda dan menentukan sama ada kuda merupakan haiwan yang berasal dari Tanah Melayu. Seterusnya meneliti peranan dan kedudukan kuda dalam masyarakat sebelum kedatangan kuasa Barat, dan menentukan perubahan yang berlaku dalam masyarakat selepas kedatangan kuasa Barat. Dalam usaha menjawab persoalan ini, penulisan ini memberikan perhatian kepada pelbagai aspek budaya dan sejarah yang menonjolkan perkaitan antara kuda dalam masyarakat, seperti permainan Kuda Kepang dan pantun Melayu. Dari sudut sejarah pula, kuda didapati memainkan peranan yang signifikan ketika zaman Kesultanan Melayu Melaka pada abad ke-15 Masihi. Pada zaman kolonial, kepentingan kuda berterusan dan menjadi satu daripada kaedah sistem pengangkutan oleh pegawai kolonial sebelum adanya sistem pengangkutan moden. Ketika itu juga perlumbaan kuda diperkenalkan, dan menjadi sukan yang menarik perhatian masyarakat. Pada awal pengenalannya, sukan ini menjadi tempat pertemuan sosial pegawai British, kalangan bangsawan Melayu dan peniaga Cina. Pada era seterusnya, perlumbaan kuda menjadi sukan yang turut diminati oleh semua golongan.

Kata Kunci: kuda, Tanah Melayu, zaman Kolonial, haiwan elit

 

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to analyze the connection between horses and the society in the pre- independence Malaya. The discussion will look at four main questions. The first question is to identify the origin of horses and whether horses are the native animals in the Malay Peninsular. Secondly, to analyze the role and position of horses in the Malay society before the coming of the Europeans. The final question is to examine the extent of changes in the role of horses in the society after the coming of the Europeans. In order to answer these questions, the article will look at the various cultural and historical aspects displaying the connection between the horses and the society. For example, the horse elements in the traditional Malay dance of ‘Kuda Kepang’. Apart from that, horse also appear in a number of Malay pantun. According to historical writings, the role of horse became important in the Malay society since the era of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century. Since then, until the colonial period, the importance of horses was increasing. Horses became major mode of transport for colonial officials before the introduction of modern transports. For In the colonial era, horse racing was introduced as one of the interesting sports. In the beginning of its introduction, this sport was exclusively a social gathering for Europeans officials, Malay elites and Chiense businessmen. In the later years, horse racing has practically become one of ordinary sports activities for all. By using primary and secondary sources, the aim of this article is to chew over this subject.

Keywords: horse, Malaya, colonial period, horse racing, elite animal

 

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